Member Spotlight: John Yeo

May 5th, 2019

John Yeo

Professor John Yeo received his MBBS degree from the University of Sydney in 1956.  He then trained as a resident medical officer at the Royal North Shore Hospital in Sydney, which included training in general and neurological surgery.  At this time, he was introduced to the challenges facing persons with spinal injuries and diseases.  This was followed by further residency training at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children in Sydney.  He then travelled as a ship’s surgeon to England and continued his studies and training at the Royal College of Surgeons in London before taking a position as a Surgical Registrar in Southlands Hospital in West Sussex, England.  In 1960, he travelled to Saskatchewan, Canada where he practiced general medicine and surgery.  In 1961, he returned to Australia, where he continued general medical practice in Pambula, New South Wales.

A new challenge was introduced when the Royal North Shore Hospital in Sydney planned to develop a specialized unit for the treatment of persons paralyzed from injury.  In 1964, he returned to the Royal North Shore Hospital as a Senior Registrar in paraplegia.  With limited local expertise in spinal cord injury (SCI) medicine and rehabilitation available at the time, he realized that there was a pressing need to expand his knowledge from around the world.  In 1967, he was awarded a Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellowship to study advanced treatment of SCI all over the world.  Over a period of four months, he toured hospitals and facilities in the USA, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, Israel and India.  He made many lifelong contacts and friends during this study tour, aiding in his search for further knowledge throughout the course of his career.

After returning to Australia, in 1968, he received an appointment as Medical Director and Head of the Spinal Unit at the Royal North Shore Hospital, a position he held until 1995.  In this capacity, he treated patients at all stages post-injury, including working with patients to assist their lives in the community in practical ways.  He worked with a highly skilled team that included other physician colleagues, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social workers, biomedical engineers, splint makers and hospital chaplains, as well as with members of various volunteer organizations.  During his tenure, the Spinal Unit grew from a small 11 bed unit to a major, modern unit, especially after the development of a new building at the hospital in 1978.

Throughout his career, Professor Yeo was involved in research to better understand the science of recovery after SCI, as well as research related to the rehabilitation of persons with SCI.  He published extensively.  In 1976, he founded the Spinal Research Foundation to further support research efforts in the field of SCI medicine.  In 1978, he received a Master of Surgery degree from the University of Sydney, with commendation, for his work on experimental SCI and the study of human pathology following SCI.  He helped develop devices such as the Russell Extraction Device used in the extrication of persons with suspected spinal injuries, particularly after motor vehicle accidents, as well as sacral nerve stimulators used to assist in the emptying of the neurogenic bladder.  He worked with biomedical engineers on durable medical equipment suitable for use by persons with disability living in the Outback and in the Pacific islands.

Besides clinical care and research, Professor Yeo was extensively involved in education.  During his career, he trained many medical students, university students, and others in the allied health professions.  He traveled extensively around the world to advise in the treatment of persons with SCI.  He was also considerably involved in the promotion of SCI prevention in the community, particularly in schools and in sport.  He played an integral role in a campaign that led to rules changes in Australian Rugby Union to mitigate risk of spinal injuries.

Professor Yeo has received extensive national and international recognition for his work.  In 1982, he was awarded as an Officer of the Order of Australia for Services in Medicine.  For his outstanding service and contributions to the field of SCI medicine, in 2000, Professor Yeo was recognized with a Society Medal from the International Spinal Cord Society, its highest honor.

Professor Yeo continued his clinical work in various capacities until early 2019, when he fully retired from clinical practice.


 How did you become interested in becoming a physician?

I became interested in medicine in my final years of schooling.  I was fortunate to receive a scholarship which allowed me to enter the Faculty of Medicine at The University of Sydney from which I graduated in 1956.


How did you become interested in the treatment of spinal and spinal cord injuries?

 I became interested in the treatment of patients with spinal injuries in 1957 as a Senior Resident.  My postgraduate training included general practice, neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery and I undertook 4 years of training in the field of spinal cord injury.


 Tell us about some of your experiences during your studies and travel under the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellowship.

 I was appointed to the staff of the Spinal Unit at Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney in 1964. I was awarded a Winston Churchill Fellowship in 1967 and visited 46 hospitals and rehabilitation units treating spinal injured patients around the world.

The hospitals in North America included the V.A. Hospital in Long Beach, California (Drs. E. Bors and E. Comarr), Rancho Los Amigos in Downey (Dr. Vernon Nickel), Indiana University Medical Centre (Dr. L. Freeman), V.A. Hospital in West Roxbury, Massachusetts (Dr. H.S. Talbot), New York University Medical Center (Dr. Howard A. Rusk), G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre, Vancouver (Dr. A.C. [Sandy] Pinkerton), The Canadian Paraplegic Association in Vancouver (Mr. Doug Mowat), Manitoba Rehabilitation Hospital, Winnipeg (Dr. Grogono), Lyndhurst Lodge Hospital, Toronto (Dr. A.T. Jousse) and the Rehabilitation Hospital of Montreal (Dr. G. Jingras).  Since 1967 I have had many visits to my colleagues in both the USA and Canada. 

In the United Kingdom the Fellowship allowed me to visit an additional 12 hospitals, including Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Aylesbury (Sir Ludwig Guttmann and Dr. J.J. Walsh), the Midlands Spinal Injury Unit at Oswestry (Dr. T. McSweeney), Lodge Moor Hospital in Sheffield (Dr. A.G. Hardy), Royal Infirmary Hospital at Sheffield (Department of Neuropathology, Dr. L. Wolman), and the Radcliff Infirmary, Oxford (Professor Trevor Hughes).  In Scotland, my visits included the Department of Surgical Neurology Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (Dr. Phillip Harris) and in Ireland, Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Dublin (Dr. T. Gregg).

In Europe, 10 specialised hospitals and units were visited, including the 500 bed unit at Konstancin, Warsaw (Prof. M. Weiss), Centre De Traumatologie et de Readaptation Hospital Universitaire Brugmann, Bruxelles (Dr. A. Tricot), “de Hoogstraat” Revalidatie Centrum, Leersum, Netherlands (Dr. A. Verkuyl), Bergmannsheil Hospital, Bochum, Germany (Dr. Fred Meinecke) and the Spinal Injuries Unit, Orthopadische Anstaff, Heidelberg (Dr. V. Paeslack).  In France, my visits included the Centre De Reeducation Motrice, Fontainebleau (Dr. Maury) and Centre de Readaptation, Mulhouse (Dr. P. Dollfus).  In Switzerland, I visited 2 well-recognised spinal units, the Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Basel (Dr. L. Michaelis) and the Centre De Paraplegiques, Hopital Cantonal, Geneva (Dr. Alain Rossier).  Before leaving Europe, I visited Centro Paraplegici, I.N.A.I.L., Ostia, Italy (Prof. A. Maglio).

In Israel, my visit included the Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Dr. A. Magora).

En route back to Australia, I had a memorable visit to the Christian Medical College in South India where there was a 20 bed rehabilitation ward for patients with SCI, who were also offered retraining facilities and accommodation.  Dr. Mary Verghese, herself paraplegic from a motor vehicle accident, was not only a skilled surgeon but a committed rehabilitationist.

The Fellowship also gave me the opportunity of studying in detail the treatment and long-term rehabilitation of patients in Australia at the Paraplegic Unit, Royal Perth Rehabilitation Hospital (Sir George Bedbrook, OBE) and the Spinal Injuries Unit in Heidelberg, Victoria (Dr. D. Cheshire).

These 4 months of study overseas were of enormous benefit in increasing my knowledge of a) early recognition of SCI patients and transfer to recognised units; b) the need for increased research to identify the specific pathological changes which occur in the injured spinal cord; and c) the need for development of appropriate surgical treatment and subsequent equipment for rehabilitation.  I came to appreciate that the involvement of staff in facilitating the return of the paralysed patient to the home and community, with the likelihood of employment, is of fundamental importance.  Advances in technology, including in the design of equipment, must continue.  Basic and applied research has to be pursued, with close working relationships between clinicians, surgeons, nurses and all rehabilitation team members.  I believe that these links can be strongly maintained through our membership in ISCoS.


Are there any patients or clinical encounters over the years that you will never forget?  Please describe.

Functional return of the injured neurones within the spinal cord can be identified, but this outcome, sadly, is not our common experience.  We are involved in sharing the journey of seriously disabled patients, so we all have patients with whom we have had special clinical encounters over the years.  

One patient, John, suffered a serious contusion injury to the spinal cord at the T10 level 30 years ago.  He was stabilised with surgery and discharged with an ability to stand for short periods in callipers but was using a wheelchair for functional mobility.  Five years ago, further recovery occurred in both lower limbs so that he is now walking with a single calliper and infrequently uses a wheelchair.  On review, and with MRI studies, John has experienced a resurgence of neuronal function late in his clinical course.  “Miracles” can still happen.


 What keeps you busy these days?  Looking forwards, what goals do you have?

I recently officially retired from active practice and look forward to the future with family and some improvement in my painting skills.


Is there anyone you would like to thank?

 I have greatly benefitted from my fellow travelers, including staff, colleagues, friends and family and am grateful for many medical friends both in Australia and overseas.  We will all continue to learn from each other as we share in our clinical experiences and research.  In the year 2000, it was a great honour to be awarded the Society Medal at our Annual Scientific Conference in Sydney by Professors Hans Frankel and Richard Jones.  There are many, many colleagues to thank.




Member Spotlight: Raju Dhakal

January 14th, 2019

Raju Dhakal

Dr. Raju Dhakal graduated Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital in 2007, earning a MBBS degree.  After medical school, he served as a house officer and tutor at the Medical College and Teaching Hospital.  In 2009, he began work as a physician at the Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Centre (SIRC) in Kaavre, Nepal, while also finding time to gain additional spinal rehabilitation experience through a clinical observership at the spinal injury program at National Rehabilitation Hospital in Dublin, Ireland.  In 2012, he began his formal residency training at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) in Bangladesh, with the support of the Vancouver-based SpiNepal group.  His residency included 2 years of rotations in medical, surgical and pediatric specialities and 3 years of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R).  He did take some time off during his residency training to return to SIRC to volunteer following the devastating 2015 Nepali earthquakes, and to receive training at the Royal Melbourne Hospital (Melbourne, Australia), earning a title of Clinical Honorary Fellow.  During his residency, he also had the opportunity to receive clinical training at the GF Strong Rehabilitation Centre (University of British Columbia; Vancouver, Canada) and the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute's Lyndhurst Centre (University of Toronto; Toronto, Canada).  He completed his residency training at BSMMU in March 2017, then received further training at the Swiss Paraplegic Centre (Nottwil, Switzerland), before starting his current position on 29 May, 2017, as medical director and physiatry consultant physician at SIRC.

Dr. Dhakal is a member of ISCoS and the Asian Spinal Cord Network (ASCoN), the regional ISCoS affiliate.  He has been highly active in the educational missions of these organizations, including presenting at conferences, chairing sessions, and participating in the initial editorial group that prepared E-learn SCI under the direction of Professor Harvinder Chhabra.  He is also a member of International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM), where he serves as a member of the Rehabilitation Disaster Relief committee.  He also serves as the Low and Middle Income Countries Representative on the advisory board for Cochrane Rehabilitation.  Finally, he is a founder and president of the Nepalese Association of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Dr. Dhakal has received many awards during his education and career, including an ASCoN Fellowship Award, the Melbourne Health Award (from Melbourne University, Australia), an International Award for International Physiatrists (from the Canadian Physiatrists Research and Development Foundation) and a Kenes International and ISPRM travel grant award.

How did you become interested in becoming a physician?

 Due to a lack of medical doctors, hospitals and vaccinations program in my village, I contracted polio at the age of two and developed paraplegia.  Rehabilitation was not available at that time.  I used to think: how could I develop medical care and rehabilitation for the people to have a dignified life despite impairment and disability?  This is how I became interested in becoming a physician.

 How did you become interested in becoming a specialist in rehabilitation medicine?

 During my rotations in medical school, I found something was missing in health care.  Later on, I realized that it was rehabilitation medicine that was missing.  From the very beginning, I was not interested only in curative medicine.  Rather, I was interested in the preventive, diagnostic and rehabilitative aspects of medicine.  I saw many patients with spinal cord injuries and disorders, brain injuries and disorders, and polytrauma just lying in bed, suffering avoidable complications.  Too often, they were dying prematurely.  There was not a single rehabilitation physician in the country [of Nepal] to manage their issues.  This was the driving force for me to become rehabilitation physician.

 What were the challenges you faced to become a specialist in rehabilitation medicine in Nepal?

The challenges I faced were:

  • There was no post graduate training available in Nepal to become a specialist in rehabilitation medicine.
  • There was no funding to go abroad to obtain training and specialty certification in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R).
  • PM&R was not even recognized as a specialty by the Medical Council of Nepal.  (Fortunately, this has now changed.)
  • There was no national level rehabilitation hospital in Nepal to work in after completion of training.  Even now, none of the university/medical colleges and hospitals have a PM&R department or a rehabilitation medicine unit in Nepal. 

Please tell us about Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Center and the work that is done there.  When did it open?  How many patients are seen there?  How is it supported?

 The Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Centre (SIRC) is a 51-bed non-profit, charitable inpatient and outpatient facility inaugurated in 2002.  It is the only facility specialized in spinal cord injury (SCI) care in Nepal.  We provide holistic and comprehensive rehabilitation utilizing an interdisciplinary approach led by a rehabilitation physician.  SIRC has medical doctors, diagnostic facilities, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, nursing care, psychology, social service, peer counseling, recreational and sports activities, vocational training, wheelchair maintenance and an orthotic workshop, all under one roof.  Until very recently, this was funded entirely by donations and fundraising activities, without government support.  More recently, some government funding has finally been granted, but about 30% of the running cost comes from patient charges and we still have to have a fundraising program.

 What challenges do persons with disabilities face when living in Nepal?

 The challenges include:

  • A lack of affordable, quality health care and education.
  • Challenges in finding dignified employment opportunities (and training) and livelihoods.
  • Environmental and attitudinal barriers (social stigma).  In rural areas, there may be hills and mountains, with no roads.  In urban areas, there can be rather unfriendly infrastructure as well.

 What keeps you busy/busiest these days?

 Being a medical director and consultant physician, I have been very busy with inpatient and outpatient consultant work, as well as multidisciplinary ward rounds.  I am also very busy as a speaker or resource person in different SCI conferences at home and abroad – especially in this region.  Now, I find myself becoming increasingly involved in research, training activities at SIRC, planning a PM&R residency, administrative work, and strategy and policy making for both SIRC and the SCI system of care in Nepal.  In my very limited free time, I enjoy being with my wife, our one-year old daughter, and our families and friends.  I also enjoy music and reading.

 What are some of your goals, for your career and for the field of rehabilitation in your country/region?

 My goals are:

  • To continuously improve the quality of care for people with SCI in Nepal, including their meaningful reintegration into their communities.
  • To help SIRC become a national and regional leader in SCI medicine and rehabilitation.
  • To lead the Nepalese Association of PM&R.
  • To start a PM&R residency training program in Nepal.
  • To strengthen the role of rehabilitation in our health care system and at to have at least one specialized SCI unit in all seven provinces of Nepal.
  • To strengthen collaboration and continued medical education in the field of SCI medicine and rehabilitation.

 Tell us something about yourself that would surprise us.

 I am the first and still the only registered PM&R physician in Nepal!  I am not only a practicing physician, but also leading a 51 bed spinal injury rehabilitation centre with more than 300 inpatients with SCI per year.  People can hardly believe that someone like me, who has a physical disability, could serve the country after a disaster like the 2015 earthquake.

 Tell us about a memorable experience you have had as a doctor.

 At the time of the 2015 Nepali earthquake, I was doing my residency in Dhaka [Bangladesh], but returned within three to four days after the earthquake with my wife and another colleague to serve the country’s needs.  Every day, I managed around 150 patients with severe SCI with the team.  In the evening and night time when we had electricity, internet and phone available, we used to discuss one or two cases everyday with ISCoS colleagues, especially from the SpiNepal group of Drs. Peter Wing and Claire Weeks.  I particularly remember a 34 year old woman with a mild head injury and an unstable fracture-dislocation at L1-2, who was intact neurologically, but in severe pain and 34 weeks pregnant.  After four weeks of careful management, the baby was successfully delivered by caesarean section and a spine fixation was done.  Both mother and baby were healthy and safe.  I still remember the crying and screaming of patients who had psychological stress with each aftershock, sometimes occurring every five to 10 minutes, when they were inside the building.  We therefore took all the patients outside the building, provided temporary shade, and provided medical, nursing and rehabilitation care outside the building in the shade.  I also remember that the doctors used to use an office in the building to view imaging, provide consultations or have meetings.  After government officials visited and inspected the building, they did not allow us to return to this office because they had determined that it was a most unsafe place due to dangerous cracks caused by the earthquake.  We never imagined that we could also become the victims of aftershocks, and we then changed our office to an area outside, under some shade.

 Are there any places you have never visited that you hope to visit in the future?

 I would still like to visit the major rehabilitation hospitals in the United States such as Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago [now Shirley Ryan AbilityLab], Rusk Rehabilitation Institute and Kessler Institute.  I would also like to visit the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in the United Kingdom.  I would also very much like to revisit the University of British Columbia and GF Strong Rehabilitation Centre in Vancouver once again with my family.

 Who are the person(s) and/or organization(s) you would most like to thank and why?

 There is such a long list of people and organizations who have helped me throughout my career.  I could not have achieved what I have without the support of my family and friends.  The SOS Children’s Village family where I grew up supported me through medical school.  Kanak Mani Dixit, a well-known journalist and editor in Nepal, who established SIRC in 2002, and many of his board members (especially Dr. Anil Bahadur Shrestha and the current board chair Prachanda Bahadur Shrestha) have been amazing sources of support and encouragement.  Ms. Esha Thapa, the executive director of SIRC for many years, and who currently heads its parent organization, developed SIRC from its humble beginnings in borrowed space to the highly respected and still growing institution of today.  Drs. Peter Wing and Claire Weeks, with the help of the SpiNepal contributors, supported me throughout my PM&R residency, and also showed me the field of SCI medicine and rehabilitation.  My professors in the PM&R department at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University allowed me to return to Nepal following the 2015 earthquake.  I am grateful also to Stephen Muldoon of Livability, ASCoN and ISCoS for financial and other material support, as well as for the encouragement that has come from so many of the leaders and members of these organizations.  Many thanks are also due to the Canadian Physiatrists Research and Development Foundation for sponsoring me to visit two exceptional Canadian rehabilitation centres and to attend the resident review course they hold every two years.  Finally, the team in Melbourne sponsored my visit to Royal Melbourne Hospital for further SCI medicine and rehabilitation training there after the Nepali earthquakes.





Member Spotlight: Mohmmad Rami Al-Ahmar

August 13th, 2018

Mohmmad Rami Al Ahmar

Dr. Mohmmad Rami Al-Ahmar holds a position of Physiatrist & Spinal Injury Consultant in the Jordanian Royal Medical Services at King Hussein Medical Centre in Amman, Jordan.  Among his many activities, he is a member of the ISCoS Educational Committee; the representative for the Middle East and North Africa region; founder of the Middle East North Africa Spinal Cord Injury (MENASCI) network; executive member of the Jordanian PM&R Society; vice president of the charitable Jordanian Spinal Cord Injuries Society; a World Health Organization liaison officer for the Eastern Mediterranean Sub Committee; and chief or member of many committees at his local medical center.  He has been member of the scientific and/or organising committees for many international conferences.  He has been invited as a key note international guest speaker in Jordan, United Arab Emirates and Qatar.  Among his other honors and accomplishments, he is a recipient of a United Nations Medal in 2008 (Medal of Administrative Competence); and a winner for best oral presentation for research on bacterial strains in pressure ulcers at the ISCoS/American Spinal Injuries Association joint meeting in Montreal, Canada in 2015. Dr. Al-Ahmar acquired his MBBS from Damascus University in Syria in 2000.  He completed residency in Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation at the Jordanian Royal Medical Services in 2008.  He completed a spinal cord injury fellowship in 2012 at the Midland Centre for Spinal Injuries at the Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital in Oswestry, UK.

What inspired you to specialize in physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) and spinal cord injury (SCI)?

 PM&R is a relatively new specialty in my region, and this is what attracted my attention.  I am always ambitious to experience new fields and helping people with disabilities inspired me. During my residency program, I encountered so many patients with SCI.  Unfortunately, not every rehabilitation doctor could educate patients about everything they needed to know, so it was up to the patients to know and discover what needed to be done.  Managing the difficulties after SCI became my passion.  During this process, I came to realize how happiness comes from giving rather than receiving.  Helping patients take care of the practical things, manage emotions, and to have as good a life as possible is my aim now!


Please describe your fellowship experience in the UK.  Did you encounter any difficulties, challenges or surprises during your studies and clinical work there?

 I was lucky to have met Professor Wagih El Masry two times in Jordan (in 2008 and 2011).  He offered me the opportunity to join him at the Midland Centre for Spinal Injuries (in Oswestry, UK), where I familiarized myself with all aspects of SCI management.  In actuality, my fellowship went smoothly, as I was well prepared by a senior colleague who received his training at Stoke Mandeville Hospital.  In addition, I had been diligently studying SCI management for years before the fellowship.


Please describe the current status of PM&R and spinal cord medicine in Jordan.  How many training programs and specialists in PM&R and spinal cord medicine are there in Jordan?

In Jordan, PM&R started in 1980s and now there are residency programs at three institutes: the Jordanian Royal Medical Services (JRMS), the Ministry of Health, and Jordan University.  All must obtain a (Board) Certificate of Specialization, which is issued by the Jordanian Medical Council.  We are now around 80 board-certified physiatrists.  There are only four doctors now who are specialized in the management of SCI.

Please let us know more about the King Hussein Medical Centre and its rehabilitation center.

King Hussein Medical Centre (KHMC) is a military medical compound of six hospitals.  The Centre is affiliated with JRMS, a wide network of hospitals in different provinces across the kingdom of Jordan.  JRMS provides health care for the military and their families, as well as civilians.  The Jordanian Royal Rehabilitation Centre, opened in 1983, is one of the hospitals in KHMC.  It has a specialized SCI unit with a capacity of 30 patients.  It is the only unit of its kind in Jordan and receives patients from all over Jordan and the Middle East.

What was the inspiration for the formation of the MENASCI Network which you founded?

Regional SCI Networks have been established in Asia and Africa.  These networks have been proven to be effective and efficient in promoting cross regional exchange, learning, education, technical capacity development, support and research in the field of SCI management. MENA, which stands for Middle East/North Africa, is a region based on the same culture, religions and languages.  It is a region for which a specific regional network was needed.  After many professionals from this region expressed their wishes to be part of a network, the MENASCI network was announced and launched during my presentation at the last Pan-Arab PM&R conference held in Amman, Jordan in October 2017. This network aims to achieve similar goals to other SCI networks, but with a greater focus on the patient’s family and caregivers, who are the cornerstones of SCI care delivery in the MENA region, as opposed to western countries where patients are more independent.  Other goals are translating materials and e-learning to be used by consumers and professionals, as well as adapting management to specific religious and cultural needs such as fasting, dressing and gender aggregation, as examples.  Many steps are underway and many are still needed to fully activate this network.

Please tell us about the situation of persons with SCI in Jordan and in the Middle East and North Africa region.  What is the situation with respect to accessibility, attitudes and durable medical equipment availability?  Are there any challenges regionally that are unique to the area that you typically would not see elsewhere in the world?

All soldiers and their eligible family members and the majority of civilian patients who have sustained SCI are fully insured in Jordan and have the opportunity to be treated in the spinal unit at KHMC.  They are covered for all their medical supplies, with the help of NGOs (non-governmental organizations), and are followed regularly in outpatient clinics, with the exception of those who have sustained SCI inflicted by others, such as in road traffic accidents or gun shot wounds. In richer Middle Eastern countries, specialized care and equipment are available.  Wheelchairs are advanced and well-provided, but users may receive limited training in wheelchair skills, depending on the availability of occupational therapists and other professionals.  Social barriers exist, including the hesitation of wheelchair users to use their wheelchairs in public places. Of interest in Jordan, there is a new  Law regarding the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which takes into considration:

a. The respect for the inherent rights and dignity, individual autonomy, and freedom of choice for persons with disabilities.

b. The participation of persons with disabilities and their organizations in policymaking, drawing up plans, programs, and decision-making operations related to them.

c. Not to discriminate against persons with disabilities on the basis of, or because of, disability.

d. The acceptance of persons with disabilities as part of human diversity and difference.

e. The inclusion of the rights and issues of persons with disabilities into national policies, strategies, plans, and programs as well as the state budget.

f. Equality between men and women with disabilities in terms of rights and duties.

g. Equal opportunities for persons with disabilities.

h. To ensure the rights of children with disabilities, develop their abilities and skills, and enhance their inclusion and participation in the community.

i. To ensure that reasonable accommodation and accessible formats.

j. The removal of physical and behavioral barriers for persons with disabilities. 

While some or all of these  regulations are available in several of the countries of this region there is still great need for implementation and enforcement of the regulations in these countries . In addition, there are no federal standards or guidelines and no legislation regulating the accessibility of public buildings for wheelchair users  in many countries. and in the other countries, there is need to implement the statutes and to enforce them.  Accessible transportation is limited in most of the MENA countries.  In Jordan, the Higher Council for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is collaborating with the government, community and NGOs to solve these issues in the future.  In North Africa and poorer countries, persons with SCI face many difficulties due to the lack of specialized care and accessibility. In our region, families and caregivers can provide too much help and interfere with patients regaining their independence and reintegrating into the community.  As an example, manual wheelchair users are mostly observed to be pushed by a family member or a caregiver rather than propelling themselves.  We badly need to change the perspective of the able-bodied towards persons with disabilities to accept them, and not to judge them based on appearances.

Please tell us about your most memorable patient encounter.

My most memorable patient is a highly intelligent but unfortunate young man, who was 14 years old when he sustained a SCI.  There were family issues at the time and the cause of his injury is still not obvious.  After he adapted to his paraplegia, we helped him return back to school as a home study student.  When he turned 17 years old, he gained a scholarship at the King Abdullah School for Excellence to join the engineering college.  Unfortunately after one month of college, he developed  Stevens-Johnson syndrome after he took antibiotics for a urinary tract infection.  It affected his eyes and he became almost blind.  He told me that he would be okay with remaining paralyzed, if he could only see clearly again.

What professional and personal accomplishments are you most proud of?

The professional and personal accomplishment which I am really most proud of is being a member of JoSCIS, the Jordanian Spinal Cord Injuries Society.  This is a charitable NGO which was established by one of my seniors for people with SCI.  I joined JoSCIS in 2011 and became an executive committee board member in 2014.  In 2018, I became the vice president.  My colleagues and I do a lot of volunteer work to support people with SCI in society through education, social activities, solving practical problems, and being available for contact for help with any medical, personal or psychological needs.

Who would you like to thank?

Humbly, I would like to thank my mother who always lights the candles when they are off, my wife, my two sons Laith and Hani for standing by during all the busy days and nights, my Institute JRMS, my teacher Dr. A. Otom who trained me, Professor El Masry who inspired me to think globally, and finally Mr. Aheed Osman who introduced me to the ISCoS Educational Committee and continues to always support me.







Member Spotlight: Guillermo Gómez

June 21st, 2018

Guillermo Gomez

Mr. Guillermo Gómez is a graduate of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina), where he studied physical therapy.  He extended his studies through hospital rotations in Europe to gain additional expertise in neurological and spinal cord injury rehabilitation.  He has taught physical therapy as faculty at Maimonides University in Buenos Aires and in numerous other professional settings.  He is an active member of the ISCoS Educational Committee.  He founded and is the director of "Kreativa Rehabilitación," a facility in Buenos Aires which provides rehabilitation services to persons with various conditions including SCI and other neurological pathologies.


What inspired you to become a physical therapist?

 Well, I played football in my youth, so I had some experiences with physical therapists due to ankle and knee injuries, which inspired me.


How did you become focused on physical therapy for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI)?

 Unfortunately, a family accident guided my future as a professional.  A very close cousin got a SCI playing rugby at the age of 18 years old.  At that time, I was already a physiotherapist with some experience with this type of patient, but this event guided me forever.  Patients with neurological problems and especially SCIs became my passion.


How and when did you first become involved with ISCOS?

Fortunately, I had the opportunity to visit a hospital in Toledo, Spain dedicated to SCI treatment.  I was there for a month, in 2012.  I learned about ISCoS there and immediately contacted Lisa Harvey, to tell her about my wish to be involved with a project to help in my region, Latin America.  Lisa opened the doors to ISCoS at the time and I wish to thank her very much.


Please tell us about the state of physiotherapy and rehabilitation for persons with spinal cord injury in Argentina.  How does it compare to the situation in other countries in Latin America?  Based on your observations during your travels, how does it compare to countries in Europe and elsewhere in the world?

It is a challenge.

 First, let me describe my perspective.  I have been very active in Latin America and I am committed to improving the welfare of people with SCI in my part of the world.  Nowadays, I am Executive member and the South American regional representative for the International Network of Spinal Cord Injury Physiotherapists (SCIPT).  I am a member of the ISCoS Education Committee.  In these roles, I have embraced the task of identifying physiotherapists in each of the countries in Latin America that are treating people with SCI and/or have a strong interest in SCI.  To try to achieve my goal, I have traveled to multiple Latin American countries to meet physiotherapists and connect them into the SCIPT Network.

I think in some Latin American countries, the situation is "critical" regarding physiotherapy professional training for SCI rehabilitation.  In Argentina and some neighboring countries (Brasil, Chile, Uruguay), at least, we have the possibility of providing training and SCI workshops.  There are some congresses and ISCoS regional activities as well.  It is lacking, however, in many other parts of Latin America, where the training and quality of SCI rehabilitation is quite behind the rest of the world.

I have travelled and visited some hospitals and SCI units in Europe (Toledo, Barcelona, Bilbao, The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany), and many colleagues and other people have asked me about the differences between Europe and Latin America.  Well, I always give the same answer.  To summarize, we (in Latin America) may lack infrastructure and the best equipment.  Our resources are minimal in many cases.  But we have our bodies and our hands.  Through hard work, we will be the best professionals that we can be and provide the best care that we can.  I am optimistic about the future.


What professional and personal accomplishments are you most proud of?

Humbly, I am personally proud of my achievements since my student days.  It is not easy to study in our region, it requires a lot of effort.  Ongoing development as a professional is also difficult.  I've also built my own business, "Kreativa," and I own space to pursue my passion, the treatment of spinal cord injuries.


Please tell us about "Kreativa Rehabilitation."

It is my dream, my personal project, and my team... and it is a real!  We are Kreativa, around 80 people working together to bring the best out of us for our patients.  We have a director, coordinators, office personnel, doctors, physical therapists, and occupational therapists, among others, working hard to rehabilitate persons with SCI.


What are the greatest obstacles and/or challenges that you have faced in your career?

To be honest, sometimes I feel alone.  But many people have supported my efforts and made me stronger to continue with my passion for SCI rehabilitation.  I am a fighter, and I try to insert physiotherapy in all of the possible activities, congresses, workshops, etc., that involve SCI treatment; that is my fight.


Who would you most like to thank and why?

My family especially my wife who allows to me to travel to all of my congresses and workshops.

I would also like to thank ISCoS, all of the members of the education committee, Stephen Muldoon, and especially Lisa Harvey; she is my guide and an example to follow.


What interests do you have outside of work?  What do you like to do on your days off from work?

I love to listen to music and I am a disc jockey.  I like to play golf and football with my friends.  I enjoy going to the cinema and going out with my wife, Flavia, and my two little ones, Facundo and Micaela.



Member Spotlight: Fiona Stephenson

May 17th, 2018

Fiona Stephenson

Ms. Stephenson studied both nursing and midwifery at the Royal Devon & Exeter Hospitals (UK) and holds additional qualifications in education (University of Westminster, UK) and international community-based rehabilitation (Queens University, Canada), as well as postgraduate diplomas in management (Institute of Management, London) and quality assurance.  She is studying for a Master's Degree in Health Sciences at The University of Southampton (UK).  Her career has included work with the Royal College of Nursing, including the International Reference Group, International Committee, Nursing Continence, Nursing Neuroscience, Education and International Forums.  She was a Core Member of the World Health Organization (WHO) Rehabilitation Medical Teams and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cell (Emergency Medical Teams) Working Groups.  She helped to create and publish the WHO guidelines on the minimum standards for rehabilitation emergency medical teams responding to a sudden onset disaster (2017).  She worked extensively in SCI healthcare capacity building in Haiti: for “Hope, Health Action" (formerly known as the Haiti Hospital Appeal - HHA) and Healing Hands for Haiti; and in Nepal: the Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Centre (SIRC) in Sanga.  She is a founding member of the Haiti SCI Working Group and remains its international coordinator since its inception in 2010.  In 2016, she became a Fellow of the Royal College of Nursing, achieving the Royal College's highest award for her contributions to the art and science of nursing.  In 2017, Ms. Stephenson won the Cavell Nurses Trust International Impact Award and was a Nurse of the Year finalist (Nursing Times UK). 

Currently, Ms. Stephenson is working as the Registered Service Manager at The Livability Spinal Injury Centre in the UK.  She has been assisting in the set up of the new spinal injury centre in the heart of the Dorset countryside, which concentrates on ‘real time rehabilitation’ for people who have sustained a SCI.  The aim is to assist people in reintegrating to the community in a supported, but realistic and pragmatic fashion, away from a typical hospital environment.  The facility is set in 350 acres of wetland, woodland and heathland.  She is responsible for the centre’s physical site, as well as the staff and people that the organisation supports.  She is particularly involved in the recruitment and training of staff. 

Ms. Stephenson has been an active member of the ISCoS Education and Disaster Committees and is assisting in the implementation of The ISCoS Nurse Committee (in progress).  Outside of ISCoS, she is co-founder of The International Network of SCI Nurses, which now has over 500 members from all over the world. The network is involved in sign posting and training nurses internationally in SCI care.  To date, Ms. Stephenson has volunteered in countries such as Mongolia, Madagascar, Nepal, Tanzania, Botswana, Haiti, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Jordan.  In 2018, her volunteer work will take her to Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Zambia and Myanmar to provide training related to SCI nursing care.


 Please tell us about a great success story you've been involved with in your work and travels.


I volunteered to respond to the Haiti Earthquake in 2010 with a UK/Haitian charity.  There, I helped to create the first dedicated SCI unit in Haiti (with Haiti Hospital Appeal) and outpatient rehabilitation clinic in Haiti (with Healing Hands for Haiti).  I helped to train the first SCI peer support worker in Haiti.  I am really proud to say that all the patients that we cared for are still alive - 8 years later.  In the poorest country in the western hemisphere, this is no mean feat.  In 2010, we went from zero to 15 patients with SCI in two days, which soon went up to 25.  Over 80% of those admitted had massive, grade 4 sacral pressure injuries that went down to the bone.  These were healed conservatively by the Haitian nurses carrying out a wound care regime that I implemented.  We carried out 3 and 7 year follow up studies that were presented as posters at ISCoS.  I am so proud of everyone’s achievements.  I regularly get feedback from some of the former patients: having babies and becoming employed.  It is not all roses though.  Haiti is a tough place to be.


Please tell us about your experiences working at the Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Centre (SIRC) in Nepal.  Were there lessons learned in Haiti that you were able to apply in Nepal?


Immediately following the earthquakes in Nepal in April 2015, I supported SIRC from the UK.  Given my skill set in disaster management in low and middle income countries, I was then deployed as a member of the UK Emergency Rehab Medical Team – a UK Government initiative.  I served in country at SIRC, which is just outside Kathmandu, for over 18 months.  Part of my early work involved rapid health care capacity building at SIRC to accommodate the substantial increase of patients with SCI following the earthquakes (from 38 to 200 people with SCI).  This was an unforgettable time.  I will always remember the incredible support provided by the local peer counsellors to the survivors of the earthquake.  I have a vivid picture in my head of fifty plus people doing their stretches, yoga and music therapy together.

I created a register of international SCI specialist volunteers and organised them to support the local nurses, physios, doctors, psychologists, occupational therapists, and wheelchair technicians.  Initially, the main focus was recruiting regional SCI specialist volunteer teams from nearby countries, and then to expand internationally.  Countries in the region are culturally similar, more likely to speak the same languages and have similar styles of care and understanding regarding resources.  Neurology and urology nurse specialist positions were introduced to the team, and proved to be extremely helpful.  I am particularly proud of all the local nurses, as they significantly limited the incidence of urinary tract infections, fecal incontinence and pressure injuries.  This standard of care has been maintained since then.  I used and enhanced systems that were developed following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, including telephone follow up support.  A questionnaire was developed to holistically address the needs of patients after hospital discharge.  The questionnaire covered areas that included mental health, skin integrity, bladder and bowel management, equipment availability, transport and social integration.  We monitored our results and the audits showed consistent improvements.

Supporting the staff and patients in Nepal was very different to my work in Haiti.  Nepal already had an established SCI centre at SIRC.  The Nepali culture is also totally different.  The country is politically more stable and has a stronger health care system.  There is also a lower incidence of violence.  After almost 3 years of experience in Haiti, I became very aware that a quick visit and input for a week or two could be extremely counterproductive and disruptive to the local staff, if not managed effectively.  I learned that it is so important to have consistency and continuity.  In Nepal, specialists did also visit for a week or so, but with specific purposes in mind, and on the whole, this worked very well.


 What interventions, e.g., medications, equipment, or education, do you feel have the most practical impact on improving the lives and health of persons with spinal cord injury in low resource settings?


Education.  The “training the trainer” approach.  Education empowers local health care professionals to provide support to people who have sustained a SCI within their local healthcare system/infrastructure.


 What are your favorite moments of your career so far?


Gosh, they are so varied, to be honest.  Each day is a new experience!  I love the work I am able to do in low and middle income countries, as I do feel that I am able to share knowledge and skills with my colleagues.


 What have been your favorite experiences related to ISCOS?


Meeting like-minded people.  I really feel that the people I have met are part of the SCI family.  I am very proud to be part of this. I love the camaraderie.


 What keeps you busy/busiest these days?


ISCoS activities, SCI nursing activities, helping to set up the Livability Spinal Centre, and expert witness work.


  Where are you traveling next?  Where will you be traveling in the next few years?


France, in July for the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Congress.  Australia, in September for ISCoS.  Zambia, for AFSCIN (the Africa Spinal Cord Injury Network).  Haiti.  Myanmar, in November for the Asian Spinal Cord Network Congress.  Nigeria, by personal invitation to provide SCI nurse training.  And South America, hopefully to assist with SCI nurse training in the next year or two.


 Please tell us about a skill or skills that you have that would surprise us.


I had a string of polo ponies and played polo for fifteen years in the UK!  And I worked with the most ‘winningest’ polo player in the world for two and a half years, travelling to the USA, Mexico, Argentina, China and through Europe.  I also have a Heavy Goods Vehicle driving license, for 17.5 tons.


 Who is the person(s) you would most like to thank and why?


My mother, who encouraged me to go into the nursing profession and my family and close friends who have unconditionally supported me whilst working and living in low and middle income countries such as Haiti and Nepal.

I am also indebted to the local healthcare professionals in the countries I have visited, who have embraced the knowledge-sharing opportunities.




Member Spotlight: Dr. Noor Bismillah

April 5th, 2018

 Dr. Noor Bismillah

Dr. Noor Bismillah graduated medical school at the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur, obtaining a MBBS degree in 1996.  She also completed her postgraduate studies at the University of Malaya, obtaining a Master of Rehabilitation Medicine in 2005.  From 2006 to 2008, she served as the head of the Rehabilitation Department at Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, the state hospital of Kelantan state in northeastern peninsular Malaysia.  She next served as the head of the Rehabilitation Department at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, the state hospital of Sabah state in Borneo, from 2008 to 2011.  From 2013 to 2017, she served as the head of the Spinal Rehabilitation Unit at Hospital Rehabilitation Cheras (HRC) in Kuala Lampur.  HRC, which opened in July 2012, offers comprehensive outpatient and inpatient rehabilitation medicine services and has 166 beds.  It is the first hospital of its kind in the Southeast Asia region.  HRC, an initiative of the Ministry of Health, Government of Malaysia, is designed with an emphasis on energy efficiency, green spaces and therapeutic landscapes.  It is locally known as the “Hospital in the Park.”  Dr. Noor Bismillah currently continues to serve as a rehabilitation physician on the Spinal Rehabilitation Unit at HRC.  She has been a member of ISCOS since 2015.


How did you get interested in the field of rehabilitation medicine in general and spinal cord injury (SCI) medicine specifically?


My interest in rehabilitation medicine started when I was still in secondary school.  I really wanted to do more for my late father who had a stroke at the time.  The interest grew even deeper when the health clinic where I was working was selected as the first health clinic in Malaysia to run a community outreach program for disabled children.  From there on, my enthusiasm to learn more about rehabilitation medicine grew even stronger.  When I learned that there was a Master of Rehabilitation Medicine programme being offered by one of the local universities (University of Malaya), I immediately seized the opportunity and sent my application.  To my utmost happiness, I was accepted into the 4th batch of postgraduates enrolled into this programme and started my training in 2001.  I was first introduced to SCI medicine during this programme.  Since then, I have continued to have a deep interest in learning everything I can about SCI medicine and wanting to help as many patients with SCI as I can.


What have been your main areas of interest within the field of SCI/rehabilitation medicine?


I have an extra interest in the management of neurogenic bladder in SCI because I just love to see how the team comes together to contribute so much to this.  As a team, we can design the best bladder management programme for each patient to get the best results.  We have a saying here that, “Together each achieves more.”


Please tell us about the situation related to medical care and rehabilitation of persons with SCI in your hospital and in Malaysia in general.


I am very grateful to have been able to see and contribute to the development of rehabilitation medicine services in Malaysia.  After I graduated from the Master of Rehabilitation Medicine programme in 2005, I served in two government state hospitals.  During that time, rehabilitation medicine was still very much an unknown to most of the hospitals in Malaysia.  I consider myself to be very lucky to have had the opportunity to personally experience the challenges in starting a rehabilitation medicine service in each of the hospitals where I worked.  When I first started the service in one of the hospitals, I did not have my own chair to sit on or my own table to do work.  However, with the strong support from hospital administrators and my colleagues, the services progressed very well.  After about 4 years, we managed to open a rehabilitation ward and clinic for our patients.  Now, Malaysia has a total of 86 rehabilitation physicians serving in 16 government hospitals, 7 university hospitals, 6 private hospitals and one social security rehabilitation centre.

Management of rehabilitation patients in Malaysia in general has its own unique challenges.  As Malaysia is a multiracial country, not only do we manage patients from various races, but we also have to deal with various languages, dialects, cultures, religions and socioeconomic backgrounds.  The key points to successful management are respect for all the differences and treating each patient as a special individual who deserves the best treatment regardless of social background.


What improvements in the lives of persons with SCI and other disabilities in Malaysia have you seen over the years?


Over the years, with the expansion of rehabilitation medicine services in Malaysia, I see less and less of our patients suffering from medical complications related to SCI such as pressure ulcers and joint contractures.  On the other hand, I am seeing more and more of our patients able to live independently.  A large number of our patients have been reintegrated back into the society and have become productive members of the community.  Some of our patients are now serving the community through their original professions despite the various physical disabilities that they have.


What accomplishments are you most proud of?


I am very grateful to have been able to initiate a spiritual support programme at my current workplace.  This program is aimed at encouraging and helping patients participate in their spiritual activities.  By this, we are hoping to be able to help them achieve optimal spiritual health and ultimately reach a more holistic recovery at the end of their rehabilitation programme.  Under this programme, we organise a number of activities which include providing a disabled-friendly praying area for patients who are wheelchair dependent.  We also provide the necessary equipment for our patients to perform their prayers and guide them on how to perform the ritual despite the physical limitations that they have.  We also provide free food for suhur for patients who are well enough to fast during the month of Ramadhan.  This spiritual support programme gives me the utmost satisfaction in my management of patients with SCI because I have a chance not only to manage their physical disabilities, but also to help them become more holistically healthy.

In my 12 years experience of working as a rehabilitation physician, the most interesting experience was when a newly paraplegic patient requested of our team to help him prepare to perform Haj

Where to find us

National Spinal Injuries Centre,
Stoke Mandeville Hospital,
Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire,
HP21 8AL, United Kingdom

How to contact us

Tel: +44 1296 315 866


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